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In an exothermic reaction the temperature of the surroundings increases. What do Opa proteins and finbrae do? Breaking down a protein into amino acids or a triglyceride into fatty acids or a disaccharide into monosaccharides are all hydrolysis or catabolic reactions.
Atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons. If you want to get thinner, eat less and exercise. Loss of contact inhibition, which is the stopping of cell growth in vitro oncein contact with another cell. They involve dehydration synthesis release water and are endergonic. What is a coenzyme?
Includes fats and steroids. What type of acid is DNA. Name the three saccharides. Also known as a simple sugar i. In a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves. Is water a solute or solvent? Is salt a solute or solvent? Name the three types of chemical reactions.
Also called an catabolic reaction. Also called an anabolic reaction. Stored energy or waiting to be used. Three types of phosphorylation? Oxidative phosphorylation, substrate level phosphorylation, and photophosphorylation. Releases energy, some of which is used to generate ATP via chemiosmosis. High energy phosphate groups directly transferred to ADP. What is an example of carbohydrate catabolism? Glycolysis to Krebs cycle to ETC. The oxidation of glucose, a six carbon molecule, to Dihydroxyacetone phosphate and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate three carbon molecules and ends with two pyruvic acids a three carbon molecule.
Describe the Krebs cycle. This energy is used to synthesize ATP. Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Final electron acceptor is an inorganic substance.
Releases energy from oxidation of organic molecules, does not require oxygen, does not use Krebs or ETC, uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor. Produces only small amounts of ATP. What three bacteria produce lactic acid? What bacteria produces ethanol? Streptococcus, lactobacillus, and bacillus. Describe light dependent stage in photosynthesis. Electrons return to the chlorophyll. What are the main portals of entry?
Mucous membranes, skin, and parenteral route. Describe mucous membrane portal of entry and give example of a microbe that uses it. Gains access through respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and conjuctiva.
This is the easiest and most frequent entry. Influenzavirus which causes flu, it's portal of entry is the respiratory tract. Describe skin portal of entry and give example of a microbe that uses it. Gains access through hair follicles and sweat gland ducts. Example is Clostridium tetani which causes tetanus. Describe parenteral portal of entry and an example of a microbe that uses it.
Through puncture, injections, bites, cuts, wounds, and surgery. Pathogens are deposited directly into tissues beneath skin or into mucous membranes. An example is Clostridium tetani which causes tetanus. In gram negative bacteria, it is a lipid portion of LPS outer membrane called lipid A. Release when bacteria dies and cell walls undergo lysis. How do pathogens penetrate host defenses? Through traits exhibited by the bacteria such as a capsule, M.
Protein, Opa protein and fimbrae, and mycolic acid. Through enzymes such as coagulase, kinase, collagenase, and hyaluronidase. Antigenic variation and penetration into the host cytoskeleton.
What do capsules do? Chemicals in the capsule prevent phagocytic cells from attaching to cell wall components.
They help attach pathogens to host, heat and acid resistant, phagocytosis resistant. What do Opa proteins and finbrae do?
They help the pathogen adhere to the host. What does mycolic acid do? They are resistant to digestion by phagocytes.
Iamges: anabolic reactions are also called synthesis reactions
Reactions are called catabolic or degradative reactions, they are usually hydrolytic reaction and are exergonic. Induces antigenic changes, causes hosts immune system to target cell for destruction 8.
Example is Clostridium tetani which causes tetanus. A unicellular organism called an amoeba.
They are important in metabolic anabolic reactions are also called synthesis reactions, lower activation energy, speed up reactions. A substance composed of only one kind of atom that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical means. It can then use the actin to propel themself through the host cell cytoplasm from cell to cell. The energy 'hump' shows how much energy reacting molecules must have for a 'successful' collision, i. Also called an anabolic reaction. Gains access through respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and conjuctiva. Influenzavirus and Trypanosoma brucci gambiense.
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