Does Too Much Whey Protein Cause Side Effects?
People with lactose intolerance can often safely take whey protein isolate 7. This apparent lack of harm is due to a highly variable excretion rate from the kidneys that correlates with dietary intake,  and these physical adaptations do not inherently signal kidney damage. I started this website back in late during college, and it has been my pet project ever since. In turn, the body would release more calcium from bones to act as a buffer and neutralize the acidic effects A circulating H 2 S pool of uM exists in the human body   although higher uM has been reported in healthy persons.
Whey protein, relative to cod and gluten protein in obese subjects, appears to cause less of a suppression of MCP-1 a cytokine needed for immune cell infiltration of tissues after a meal that is inherently anti-inflammatory; suggesting it may be less anti-inflammatory than cod or gluten protein. Some claim that too much whey protein can damage the kidneys and liver and even cause osteoporosis. Discuss Proposed since March Health Benefits of Whey Protein Powder. Does high-protein intake help when dieting?
Whey is a Food Product. Whey protein is food, plain and simple. It is created in the cheese-making process. The curds casein protein and milk fat are separated out and used to make the cheese, leaving just the whey protein to be filtered and dried into a powder. Even though it is in powdered form and typically comes in flashy packaging, there are no more whey protein side effects than there are side effects of milk.
Whey Protein is Safe, But … Although it has no known side effects, you should take certain precautions before taking a whey protein supplement if you are:. The same things happen if you eat enough of anything. They have no credible scientific backing. Myths are created by taking a little bit of information and drawing connections.
You can find so much misinformation about so-called whey protein side effects thanks to the following myths about protein:. Kidney and Liver Problems. This myth exists because some people like to draw very broad or far-reaching conclusions from very specific or limited research.
You can find false claims that high protein diets cause osteoporosis. This myth is founded on outdated research, which basically showed that people on high protein diets had more calcium in their pee. Another false claim regarding high intakes of protein can cause the side effect of arthritic condition known as gout.
Whey is the Scapegoat. Whey Protein Buying Dangers. Although there are no real whey protein side effects that you have to worry about, one thing I do recommend is buying a trusted brand. Avoid Dangers with Common Sense. When Whey Concentrate is subject to ultrafiltration, the amount of vitamins per gram of protein increases slightly relative to the whey it was derived from.
Amino acid ratios remain the same, but are much higher per gram of product due to the act of concentration. Mineral and ash content are reduced.
Microfiltration is the same process of ultrafiltration, but with a more restrictive gradient. Rather than a polyethersulfone barrier, microfiltration tends to use a polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF membrane which allows molecules between 0. Whey appears to resist coagulation in the stomach and pass on relatively quickly to the intestines.
When measuring beta-lactalbumin largest component of whey in the intestines, this specific component does not appear to be subject to much hydrolysis in the stomach as it appears intact in the intestines.
In one intervention where nitrogen content, energy density, osmolarity, liquid volume, and caloric content were all matched; there were no apparent differences in gastric emptying between whole whey and casein as well as their hydrolysates. Whey protein appears to be less effective, relative to casein protein, at slowing intestinal motility rates. Whey protein seems to spike in the blood approximately minutes after ingestion, as assessed by measuring the leucine spikes in the blood.
Whey protein has been investigated for its ability to reduce blood pressure due to the presence of several ACE-inhibiting peptides derived from both alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin. In a long-term study on elderly women consuming whey protein 30g protein, mg calcium; control group had sugar , it was found that an estimated increase of g total dietary protein daily was unable to significantly benefit blood pressure over the course of 2 years; this study had persons using antihypertensive medications with unknown interactions with Whey protein.
Some acute studies do note a decrease in blood pressure, but 45g whey isolate was not significantly different than 45g sodium caseinate casein or from 45g of glucose as a control  it should be noted that ingestion of almost anything, acutely, can reduce blood pressure slightly,  whey just outperformed casein and glucose when calories were controlled.
Changes in lipoproteins with this study design are also insignificantly different, although there was a significantly lesser release of triglycerides after the consumption of whey relative to both casein and glucose. Consumption of a meal with whey protein relative to gluten, cod, or casein protein appears to result in a lesser spike in CCL5,  which is a recent biomarker for artherosclerosis where lower levels are seen as desirable. An intervention pairing whey protein with resistance exercise in obese males found that the addition of whey relative to a resistance training and placebo group found increases in HDL cholesterol and total antioxidant capacity secondary to glutathione while exercise per se was able to reduce LDL cholesterol.
This may be due to dipeptides in whey hydrolysate consisting of differing BCAAs being able to stimulate glucose uptake, with their efficacy at 1mM ranging from 1.
L-Cysteine, the amino acid present in whey's immunoglobulins, is seen per se as potential adjunct therapy for Diabetes type II. In animal models, pairing L-Cysteine with a meal can acutely improve postprandial glucose tolerance   and improve long-term glucose control when a part of the diet.
In a study on diabetics, who tend to have elevated triglycerides after a meal due to higher glucose whey protein can reduce meal-induced spikes in triglycerides.
In general, whey protein is seen as beneficial to the lining of the intestines, especially in clinical settings where intestinal function is impaired. At least one human intervention has noted that whey protein at 0. A pilot study has been conducted on whey protein supplementation and its interactions with non-alcoholic fatty liver, and 20g whey protein for a period of 12 weeks in addition to a standard diet was able to reduce liver enzymes ALT down from One study in humans with Hepatitis C noted that whey protein concentrate was able to reduce inflammatory markers and improve liver enzymes over a period of two months relative to control group.
These protective effects have been seen in rats alongside improved histological results and improved oxidative status  which also confers an anti-oxidative buffer during exericse, known to induce oxidative damage. Although not specific to whey, protein in general and most commonly an excess of protein has been said to cause renal kidney damage to healthy humans. This claim has been the subject of many reviews, and conclusions tend to cluster around 'no adverse effect of protein' with intakes up to 2.
The one study to specifically isolate whey protein is confounded with Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Creatine also usually said to harm kidneys yet hasn't been shown to but found no abnormalities over 5 weeks with 36g whey protein in addition to a normal diet. This apparent lack of harm is due to a highly variable excretion rate from the kidneys that correlates with dietary intake,  and these physical adaptations do not inherently signal kidney damage.
Although there are "no clear renal-related contraindications to HP diets in individuals with healthy kidney function",  protein intakes and whey protein may be contraindicted in persons with kidney impairments. The most commonly cited is acceleration of chronic kidney disease, where an inherent reduction of glomerular filtration rate seen during disease pathology indicative of the failing potential of the kidney appears to be accelerated when dietary protein is raised.
A component of whey protein known as Alpha-Lactalbumin has been investigated for its neurological roles due to its high tryptophan content  and apparent bioactivity in improving mood secondary to the tryptophan content;  in rats has shown protective effects and better seizure control as assessed by myoclonus involuntary muscle twitch onset rates.
One pilot study in epilepsy noted that the addition of alpha-lactalbumin to whey as a vessel for tryptophan was able to improve seizure control in persons with drug-resistant epilepsy. This study reported that there was no significant effect on myoclonus movements while anti-depressive effects and improved sleep quality were seen, with half the patients opting to remain on treatment after the study concluded.
Macrophages have been found to have enhanced function via a tripeptide of Glycine-Leucine-Phenylalanine derived from a-lactalbumin  as well as by low concentrations of glycomacropeptide GMP , another component of whey.
Lactoperodixase as well as Lactoferrin appear to have suppressive actions on lymphocyte proliferation, but these effects are not observed in a whey protein concentrate mixture. Glycomacropeptide has been shown to influence immunity in the intestines, exerting anti-inflammatory effects in a rat model of colitis. Whey protein, relative to cod and gluten protein in obese subjects, appears to cause less of a suppression of MCP-1 a cytokine needed for immune cell infiltration of tissues after a meal that is inherently anti-inflammatory; suggesting it may be less anti-inflammatory than cod or gluten protein.
Many of Whey protein's effects with cancer are due to the Cysteine rich fragments enhancing Glutathione production. Lactoferrin is a bioactive peptide with an ability to bind iron, and it has been shown to be anti-cancer which may not be related to its iron binding properties; that being said, when it becomes saturated with iron molecules it can become a potent anti-cancer protein  and can modulate oxidation.
Lactoferrin appears to be endogenously produced in humans and is an aspect of the immune system, while lactoferrin in when bovine lactoferrin can mimic its actions somewhat.
Whey protein has been associated with improvements of cancer-related cachexia in at least one case study,  although this case used testosterone enanthate at low doses and highly confounds the results. The usage of whey in this case was for a surplus of amino acids, and the benefit may not be isolated to whey protein per se.
Whey and casein hydrolysates seem to induce greater gastric acid secretions relative to whole proteins, and induce more secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polipeptide. One study comparing whey protein against a non-caloric placebo found that whey protein, in middle-aged and older men, was associated with an increase in Myostatin binding protein FLRG but that a decrease in Myostatin itself was observed only in placebo; suggesting that protein intake and exercise influences myostatin function.
At least in rats, the increase of Myostatin associated with immobility is not suppressed by protein supplementation either. Pairing protein ingestion and exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis to a greater extent than does ingestion of protein alone over the course of 6 hours measured , suggesting time-dependent pairing.
At least one study noted that this increased sensitivity of muscle tissue to amino acids can last up to 24 hours,  so once daily exercise can theoretically suffice.
In older individuals, some damage to the muscle cell via resistance training may be needed to achieve protein synthesis rates similar to youth, and even then at a slightly higher intake of 40g  to a youth's 20g. Many other studies note significantly more muscle protein synthesis relative to control, with higher levels of Myofibrillar FSR relative to nothing,   higher acute levels of amino acid uptake into muscle paired with amino acid retention,  a higher net nitrogen retention relative to a non-intervened group independent of timing , .
A study conducted on resistance-trained males already following a 4-day weekly split intervened with both whey paired with casein 40g, 8g and whey paired with additional BCAAs and Glutamine 40g, 5g, 3g against placebo 40g carbohydrate and found that, over the course of 10 weeks and with an overall dietary intake of 2. Many studies do note that the addition of protein does not confer additional benefits, however, in both youth  and older subjects   localizing protein intake around workouts.
One study increasing protein intake from 1. Another study that found no effects of whey protein used 10, 20, or 30g taken twice daily in overweight and obese persons for 9 months, and in conjunction with a thrice-weekly workout regimen 2 weight training sessions, 1 aerobic found no improvements on any metabolic parameter including body composition. Two studies have been conducted assessing at what point protein synthesis is maximized after resistance training when ingesting protein, one in youth  and one in older individuals.
Interestingly, elderly persons are also more responsive to fast protein sources and acute spikes in amino acids relative to younger persons. One of the more well-conducted studies on the matter 10 weeks in duration, resistance trained young men, moderate to high level workout protocol found that 42g whey protein 3.
One study on 6 healthy and untrained volunteers, an essential amino acid EAA solution of 6g taken alongside 35g carbohydrate in a fasted state was significantly more effective in improving muscle protein synthesis as measured by phenylalanine incorporation when taken immediately before when compared to immediately after.
Whey protein, and protein in general, may enhance recovery rates from exercise. In studies that induce muscular damage with weight training and subject participants to a form of protein or nothing, studies that ingest protein tend to recovery strength faster at subsequent workouts. In studies that measure delayed onset muscle soreness DOMS , no significant effects are seen between carbohydrate,  milk, or a combination of the two  no significant differences between water, whey isolate, and whey hydrolysate when measured 6 hours later,  The studies that do note less DOMS are those that have protein consumed 30 minutes before exercise, suggesting pre-loading may be of importance;  this has also been noted with isolated Branched Chain Amino Acids , where taking BCAAs before exercise reduced DOMS.
Supplementing with Whey protein during exercise does not significantly suppress fat oxidation during exercise despite the insulin release from select amino acids.
When investigating Whey protein against other common protein sources skim milk, casein protein no differences in energy expenditure post-consumption are noted.
After consumption of 55g whey protein in two doses of Due to whey protein's satiety value ability to induce the sensation of fullness , it can reduce body fat over time through reduced overall food consumption. There is mixed human data on whether a pre-load of whey protein suppresses appetite in subsequent meals, one study found 20g whey administered 30min before food did not have an effect while casein and pea did  whereas another study found the opposite effects with the same dose and timing although it noted that hydroslates rather than concentrates did not have this suppression of appetite.
Some studies report less food intake, yet no changes in subjective parameters of appetite. One intervention of subjects given either 10g whey protein or 10g glucose over 12 weeks found that a kcal deficit was able to induce weight loss in both groups, but those consuming whey had 6. One study comparing 52g whey protein isolate against soy and carbohydrate 2 different groups found that, despite keeping calories static, whey protein outperformed soy protein and glucose control at reducing fat mass when combined with a caloric deficit 0.
Conversely, studies that do not find reductions in body weight exist. A 2-year study conducted in Post-menopausal women consuming Whey 30g whey protein with mg Calcium against the active control 2g whey and mg calcium found that the addition of 30g whey to an already protein sufficient diet was able to further enhance levels of IGF-1 7.
A fair amount of benefits associated with Whey Protein are more associated with the protein aspect of it rather than the Whey aspect. The most potent methods to stimulate muscle protein synthesis are either feeding or resistance exercise  of which the latter is defined by increases in circulating amino acids   and more specifically the amino acid leucine , of which can increase muscle protein synthesis independent of other amino acids.
Leucine and amino acids in general hold benefit to muscle protein synthesis, but there may be some aspects of Whey Protein that set it apart from other sources; this section serves to delineate protein sources.
When compared to casein protein , whey shows higher levels of serum BCAAs and muscle protein synthesis at the same dose for the hours following exercise  and drastically elevated levels of muscle protein synthesis at both rest and post exercise when measured within an hour. Whey appears to effectively increase protein synthesis more in older individuals compared to casein,   while in youth casein seems to cause slightly more overall nitrogen retention on the body.
In a study on COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , characterized by disturbed amino acid metabolism, casein appears better than whey at inducing protein retention and possibly building muscle mass study was too short to conclude the latter statement.
Against casein as sodium caseinate Whey protein seems better able to reduce spikes in Triglycerides seen after meals with fatty acids in them  and can reduce triglycerides over a period of 6 weeks; outperforming casein but not reaching statistical significance in doing so.
When measuring anti-oxidative abilities in a clinical setting , whey protein confered greater anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects as assessed by glutathione and IL-6; respectively. Soy protein not to be confused with Soy Isoflavones failed to change body composition in one study, when Whey protein was able to in obese adults. Control subjects glucose gained gain weight and the subjects who took whey protein lost 1.
Soy protein supplementation increased total dietary protein to similar levels as the whey protein, but did not cause a change in bodyweight.
The whey had 1g more leucine and 1g less glutamine than soy and at the end of the trial the whey group had 2. A study comparing whey protein against carbohydrate as well as their combination found that relative to 1.
At least one study has investigated whether the addition of leucine to a protein and carbohydrate drink used as an active control provided any more benefit to young The influence of protein and leucine combinations does not appear to differ to significantly with age, although this study  noted an increase in muscle protein synthesis rates while the aforementioned study  failed to see these effects.
When comparing 3g of leucine against 25g of whey protein of which contains 3g leucine, it was found that leucine seems to be causative of most phosphorylation of p70s6k and mTOR proteins that are activated to induce muscle protein synthesis and rivaled whey's initial increase in muscle protein synthesis, but failed to further increase muscle protein synthesis in the hour time period while whey further increased MPS.
Zinc is an essential mineral involved in bone, hormone, and enzyme metabolism. The addition of 30mg zinc to a whey drink in the frail hospitalized elderly is able to enhance IGF-1 secretion from Protein digestive enzymes are sometimes paired with protein to 'enhance absorption'.
One open labelled study has been conducted on the matter funded by Triarco, supplier of patented enzymes used; conducted independently found that pairing 2. Aminogen is a blend of enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae , these results may apply to other compounds with protein digestive abilities such as Bromelain.
HAMLET is an acronym for Human a-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells , and is the quaternary protein a-lactalbumin from whey bound with oleic acid found in Olive Oil as well as Eggs. One study investigating the effects of heat treatment noted that unfolding of the protein denaturation caused an enhanced subsequent production of BAMLET in vitro , but eventually the heat could cumulatively degrade the a-lactalbumin precursor and hinder BAMLET production.
Whey is already a component of human breast milk,   as are many of its bioactive peptides such as alpha-lactalbumin, which is seen as good for infant nutrition. No compelling evidence to discourage usage in pregnancy, and whey as a naturally component of cheese and milk consumed routinely during pregnancy suggests moderate usage of whey protein is fine.
Mothers should be aware of possible contaminants in poor brands of whey protein which has been reported in the media previously, although is seen as uncommon. Common misspellings for Whey Protein include whay, way, wey, protien, proteen, protine.
Please click here if you are not redirected within a few seconds. Whey Protein Whey and casein protein are both derived from milk. Join our FREE supplement course and end the confusion. Free 5 day supplement course. Also Known As whey, whey concentrate, whey isolate, whey hydrolysate, hydrolyzed whey Do Not Confuse With Milk protein , Casein protein Things to Note Whey protein is chemically non-stimulatory, but may provide energy via means of caloric consumption and an insulin spike from the amino acids.
Grade Level of Evidence Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies Uncontrolled or observational studies only. The amount of high quality evidence.
The more evidence, the more we can trust the results. The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect. Scientific research does not always agree. Inclusion of dietary protein in the diet above the recommended daily intake appears to aid the process of fat loss during hypocaloric diets eating less than required to sustain body weight.
There is currently no demonstrated benefit with whey protein over other protein sources. Mixed effects on insulin, as there is an acute increase due to whey being a protein source although whey increases insulin more than other proteins.
Iamges: whey protein anabolic effect
A study comparing whey protein against carbohydrate as well as their combination found that relative to 1. The influence of protein and leucine combinations does not appear to differ to significantly with age, although this study  noted an increase in muscle protein synthesis rates while the aforementioned study  failed to see these effects.
Whey protein is also a complete source of protein, meaning it contains all the essential amino acids. If you are an athlete or highly active person, or you are attempting to lose body fat while preserving lean mass, then a daily intake of 1.
Anaboluc provides necessary context for explaining the topics of whey protein side effects and myths about protein side effects. Before reading this I was constantly considering whey and other supplements the same. A decrease in Ghrelin has been observed with whey protein supplementation. No significant influence on circulating cholesterol has been demonstrated with whey protein. Moderate See all 6 studies. However, he was also taking whey protein anabolic effect variety of other supplements.
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